For Vigotsky, however, the psychological development is not fixed in the genetic predisposition, but in the evolution of the acquired superior psychological functions in the relation of social history from the mediation of the symbolic instruments produced by the culture. According to OLIVEIRA: ' ' Vygotsky rejected, therefore, the idea of fixed and invariant mental functions, working with the notion of the brain as an opened system, of great plasticity, whose structure and ways of functioning are molded throughout the history of the species and the individual development. Given the immense possibilities of accomplishment human being, this plasticity is essential: the brain can serve the new functions, bred in the history of the man, without they are necessary morphologic transformations in the agency fsico' '. (OLIVEIRA; 1993:24) In this aspect, the conception of Vigotsky on the predominance of the external factors in the development of the superior psychological functions on the external factors if becomes clear. For this salient Vigotsky the necessity of the internalization process.

The factor of bigger relevance for the cognitivo development is the acquisition of the language as sociocultural instrument as half of learning. The relation of the individual with the world is mediated through instruments (concrete) and symbols (semitico). The description-cultural acquisition of the symbols and instruments are the ways that make possible the mental representation (abstraction) and the formation of discursiva intelligence (interpretation), therefore different cultures produce different instruments and language. In this process of the language as mediating the citizen of the knowledge enters and the knowledge of the object, Vigotsky determines two basic functions: social communication and formation of concepts. Different cultures produce different objects that are interiorizados to the measure that if interacts with the social environment, allowing that the realistic knowledge is interpreted by the language. The social development also is divided in two polar regions: Zone of Desenvolvimento Real (ZDR) and Zone of the Development Proximal or Potencial (ZDP).